To tell partner about pregnancy
What is thrush?
Thrush – infection of skin and mucous membranes caused by opportunistic yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida.
The term “thrush” is a collective, because quite often they are called various diseases have, however, one of the pathogen. Speaking of thrush in women, most often referring to Candida vulvovaginitis, men – candidal balanoposthitis and newborn thrush implies candidal stomatitis, glossitis or cheilitis.
Causes of yeast infection
Thrush is caused by yeast fungi of the genus Candida (C. albicans and C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. crusei, etc.). In small numbers they are part of the normal microflora of the mouth, intestines, vagina and skin of almost all healthy people. The development of yeast infection occurs when excessive multiplication of these fungi in the body that can be caused by a number of reasons:
the weakening of the immune system on the background of diseases, intake of corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, stress, etc.
congenital and acquired immunodeficiency States (HIV infection)
prolonged administration of antimicrobial agents
the use of combined oral contraceptives
pregnancy (mostly her last trimester)
long-wearing tight underwear made of synthetic materials
failure to observe the rules of personal hygiene, etc.
The highest incidence thrush coincides with the beginning of sexual life, and corresponds to a period of increased sexual activity of men and women, due to the transmission of disease through sexual contact. While to a greater extent to the development of yeast infection contribute to oral-genital contact (oral sex), since Candida fungi present in the oral cavity of almost all healthy people. One of the possible ways of infection thrush newborn is pathogen transmission from mother to child at the time of the passage of the birth canal. The same thing happens to breastfeeding when Breasts women infected. Thrush newborn child can also contribute to frequent regurgitation, prematurity, prolonged antibiotic therapy, etc. You must remember that thrush – this is not a disease that is transmitted sexually, and is a symptom of disturbed well-being in the body (low immunity, hormonal disorders, etc.).
The signs and symptoms of thrush
Usually the course of a yeast infection in women is accompanied by lesions of the vagina and vulva (candidal vulvovaginitis), men ’ s foreskin and the head of the penis (Candida balanoposthitis), and in infants the mouth (oral thrush), tongue (Candida glossitis) and lips (candidal cheilitis). The main symptoms of yeast infection in women are itching and burning in the genital area, which can increase after the adoption of water treatment, in the afternoon, when wearing tight synthetic underwear, as well as during sleep. Often thrush is accompanied by pain during urination and intercourse, which creates additional inconvenience. Observed with a yeast infection swelling of the tissues of the vagina can spread to the labia and forth in the anal region. Another very important symptom of vulvovaginal candidiasis is the presence of white cheesy vaginal discharge with a sour smell.
Thrush in men is also accompanied by itching or burning sensation in the glans penis and foreskin. Pain or discomfort during urination and sexual intercourse are fairly frequent, but not obligatory signs of candidal balanoposthitis. Intensive course of yeast infection in men on the mucous membrane of the genital organs can occur cracks and erosion, covered with white or grayish-white coating.
Thrush in the newborn is accompanied by the appearance in the mouth a small white patches (plaques), which over time can grow and form dorogobuzhskiy plaque. The available spots are often located in the sky, gums (oral candidiasis gingivitis ) and the inner side of the cheeks (oral thrush), tongue (Candida glossitis) or lips (candidal cheilitis). After removing the plaque in its place is found reddened irritated mucous. A child with thrush may refuse the breast, become restless and Moody. The reason for this lies in the pain of mucosa affected with Candida. The most severe complications of yeast infection include urethritis and cystitis, infertility, esophagitis, generalization of infection with severe lesions of various internal organs, etc.
Diagnosis of thrush
The diagnosis of yeast infection is based on clinical picture of the disease and the results of smear microscopy from the affected areas of the mucosa. Laboratory diagnosis may also include the planting of vaginal discharge, conducting immuno-enzymatic assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a non-specific methods for thrush can be used a General blood test, General urine analysis and blood chemistry. Differential diagnosis of thrush is held with gonorrhea and trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, genital herpes, etc.
Treatment and prevention of thrush
Yeast infection treatment typically consists of three stages: suppression of growth of pathogenic fungi, restore the normal microflora and increase the overall resistance of the organism. It is important to note that each of them is carried out under the guidance of a physician.
In the first phase yeast infection treatment is carried out antifungal drugs (diflucan, nizoral, pinesol, etc.) that may be taken orally or used in the form of vaginal suppositories and creams. The choice of drug, duration and mode of its administration produces a a doctor, depending on the form of yeast infection and the degree of its severity, taking into account the effectiveness of previous therapy. In mixed infections, when along with Candida in the occurrence of yeast infection plays a role of bacterial flora, realize the use of combined drugs (terzhinan, polygynax, klion-D, etc.).
During treatment of yeast infection it is recommended to refrain from sexual activity for 2-3 weeks. It is believed that at this stage, the sexual partner should also be subjected to therapy, regardless of whether it has any signs of disease. Otherwise a yeast infection can repeatedly be transmitted from one partner to another and the positive effect of the treatment is reached. Simultaneously, it is necessary to exclude the influence on the organism of all the factors contributing to the development of thrush (taking oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, etc.). After taking antifungal drugs when malczyce, started to restore the vaginal microflora in women. For this she shall be appointed eubiotics (Bifidumbacterin, Azilect, etc.), which in large quantities are live microorganisms. However, before applying them requires accurate mycological control, confirming the absence of pathogens of thrush after the first stage of treatment.
Treatment of candidiasis always requires observance of rules of personal hygiene. The purpose of hygienic care of the intimate area with a yeast infection it is advisable to wash with clean running water and to renounce the use of soap and various gels that violates the acid-alkaline balance of the vagina. You need to wash in the morning, evening and after intimacy. When you use daily sanitary pads should be changed every 2-3 hours. The same tampons with a yeast infection to use and not at all recommended.
Thrush mouth in infants almost always requires only local treatment. While the affected areas of the mucosa are treated with 0.1% hexetidine treatment solution (Hexoral) or 2% sodium bicarbonate solution. In rare cases, when thrush is not amenable to local therapy, resort to the use of antifungal drugs.
The third stage of treatment of yeast infection is to increase the overall resistance of the body using the vitamins and adaptogens, immunomodulators, chelators, etc. It is important to pay this section would ensure enough attention, because otherwise it can happen recurrence of the disease. Prevention of yeast infection is in compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and hygiene of sexual life. Women can be encouraged to give up wearing underwear made of synthetic materials, reduce the consumption of sweets, and also try to eliminate the effect of different factors contributing to the occurrence of the disease. For the prevention of yeast infection in the newborn is recommended to give him after feeding a few teaspoons of boiled water to clean the oral cavity from the rest of the milk and baby bottles and nipples should be processed carefully. When breastfeeding, the baby should pay enough attention to the prevention of yeast infection of the breast woman.